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Microsurgery is the technique that allows transplanting vascularized tissue segments (bone, muscle, skin) or extremities (fingers, joints, etc.) between different parts of the body.

We take pieces of tissue, called flaps, which are expendable to supplement losses elsewhere in the body where they are needed. For example, sacrificing the fibula bone or the latissimus dorsi muscle would not have a significant impact on the person. Thus, if a large piece of tibial bone is missing because of a fracture or a tumor resection, we may be able to replace it with a piece of vascularized fibula. This process is called microsurgical reconstruction.

Since the flaps are of great size, they need irrigation / vascularization to survive. They should therefore be transplanted with blood vessels (arteries and veins) that will be connected with other blood vessels to recover the blood supply. The connection of blood vessels together or anastomosis, being typically 1 mm in diameter, requires the use of a microscope, fine instruments and sutures of smaller diameter than a human hair. For this reason we talk about microsurgery.
 

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